This chapter provides criteria for evaluating permanent
impairments of the spine, including how they affect an individual’s ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL). The spine consists of four regions:
the cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral vertebrae, and associated soft tissues including muscles, ligaments,
disks, and neural elements. Impairments of the spine discussed in this chapter include lumbar, thoracic, cervical, spinal cord, and pelvic impairments.